Basics – Strength Assessment

Strength Measure In Brief… Important Values
Grip Strength Research has shown that increased grip strength is positively correlated with decreased risk of falling, has been demonstrated to have a 69% prediction accuracy for motor functioning 6 months post hip fracture in combination with upper limb functioning and age and has even been noted as a marker for overall fragility in elderly women. Important values for grip strength for sarcopenia -16kg for women and 27kg for men
Time Loaded Stance Test For this test, the client stands holding a 2 lb. weight at chest height with elbows extended, neutral pronation/supination. The patient is timed for how long they can hold this position. Timing stopped if they can’t maintain the test position or voluntarily set down the weights. Maximum time for test is 2 minutes. The task is well-tolerated and safe for the frail and oldest-old as this test is self-limiting.
30-second Timed Sit-to-Stand The 30 second sit to stand was initially developed as an assessment tool to assess lower body strength in community-dwelling elderly. The score is the total number of stands executed correctly within 30 seconds. If the patient is more than half way up at the end of 30 seconds it is counted as a full stand. See normative values below.
5 Sit-to-Stand Test The 5 sit to stand test originally has been used as a surrogate measure for lower extremity strength. Subsequent research has suggested that it is not entirely inferring strength but may predict recurrent falls. Interpretation: Exceeding the following scores indicates a worse than average performance: 11.4 sec (60-9 yrs.); 12.6 sec (70-9 yrs.); 14.8 sec (80-9 yrs.) (Bohannon, 2006)
Bicep Curl Test The biceps or arm curl indicates arm strength & is associated with the ability of a person to perform lifestyle tasks such as carrying heavy objects in ADLs. See normative values below.

About 5 Times Sit to Stand Test

Chair SHOULD be secured against a wall.

Time Sit-to-Stand Values:
60-64 14-19 12-17
65-69 12-18 11-16
70-74 12-17 10-15
75-79 11-17 10-15
80-84 10-15 9-14
85-89 8-14 8-13
90-94 7-12 4-11
Normal range of scores: Bicep Curl Test
60-64 13 - 19 16 - 22
65-69 12 – 18 15 - 21
70-74 12 – 17 14 - 21
75-79 11 – 17 13 - 19
80 - 84 10 - 16 13 - 19
85-90 10 - 15 11 - 17

Beloosesky, Y., Weiss, A., Manasian, M., Salai, M. (2010) Handgrip strength of the elderly after hip fracture repair correlates with functional outcome. Disabil Rehabil, 32(5), 367-73

Bohannon, R.W. (2006). Reference values for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test: A descriptive meta-analysis of data from elders. Perceptual and Motor Skills, (103), 215-222.

Dixon, W.G., et al. (2005). Low grip strength is associated with bone mineral density and vertebral fracture in women. Rheumatology, 44:642-646

Jones, C.J., Rikli, R.E., Beam, W.C. (1999). A 30-s chair-stand test as a measure of lower body strength in community-residing older adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 113-119.

Kritz-Silverstein, D., et al., (1994). Grip strength and bone mineral density in older women. JBMR, 9(1), 45-51

Rossat, A., et al., (2010). Risk factors for falling in community-dwelling older adults: which of them are associated with the recurrence of falls? J Nutr Health Aging, 14(9), 787-91

Shipp, K.M., Purse, J.L., Gold, D.T., Peiper, C.F., Schenkman, M.S., Lyles, K.W. (2000). Timed loaded standing: a measure of trunk and upper extremity endurance suitable for people with osteoporosis. Osteoporosis Int., 11:914-922