walking program: high intensity, 3x/wk, 30-45 minutes
analyzed results showed walking to have a positive effect on the BMD of spine 1.31[95%CI (-0.03 to 2.65)] and the hip 0.92 [95%CI(0.21 to1.64)]
Author’s conclusion: Walking resulted in statistically significant improvements of BMD in lumbar spine and hip. The authors suggest that this program may be easiest, simplest and best program for implementation long-term.
Walking program amongst 8 studies varied (self-paced, brisk pace, pace based on heart rate, treadmill walking & outdoor walking)
8 showed relative change in lumbar spine BMD of 0.39%
5 studies examined femoral neck BMD – a relative change of 0.35%
Author’s conclusions: walking as a singular exercise intervention is not sufficient to preserve BMD at the spine or hip in post-menopausal women. The effects on BMD may be clinically too small to impact reduction of fractures.